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Anna Karenina tells parallel stories of an adulterous woman trapped by the conventions and falsities of society and of a philosophical landowner much like Tolstoy , who works alongside the peasants in the fields and seeks to reform their lives.
Tolstoy not only drew from his own life experiences but also created characters in his own image, such as Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrei in War and Peace , Levin in Anna Karenina and to some extent, Prince Nekhlyudov in Resurrection.
War and Peace is generally thought to be one of the greatest novels ever written, remarkable for its dramatic breadth and unity.
Its vast canvas includes characters, many historical with others fictional. The story moves from family life to the headquarters of Napoleon , from the court of Alexander I of Russia to the battlefields of Austerlitz and Borodino.
Tolstoy's original idea for the novel was to investigate the causes of the Decembrist revolt , to which it refers only in the last chapters, from which can be deduced that Andrei Bolkonsky 's son will become one of the Decembrists.
The novel explores Tolstoy's theory of history, and in particular the insignificance of individuals such as Napoleon and Alexander.
Somewhat surprisingly, Tolstoy did not consider War and Peace to be a novel nor did he consider many of the great Russian fictions written at that time to be novels.
This view becomes less surprising if one considers that Tolstoy was a novelist of the realist school who considered the novel to be a framework for the examination of social and political issues in nineteenth-century life.
Tolstoy thought that Anna Karenina was his first true novel. In his novel Resurrection , Tolstoy attempts to expose the injustice of man-made laws and the hypocrisy of institutionalized church.
Tolstoy also explores and explains the economic philosophy of Georgism , of which he had become a very strong advocate towards the end of his life.
Tolstoy also tried himself in poetry with several soldier songs written during his military service and fairy tales in verse such as Volga-bogatyr and Oaf stylized as national folk songs.
They were written between and for his Russian Book for Reading , a collection of short stories in four volumes total of stories in various genres published along with the New Azbuka textbook and addressed to schoolchildren.
Nevertheless, he was skeptical about poetry as a genre. As he famously said, "Writing poetry is like ploughing and dancing at the same time".
According to Valentin Bulgakov , he criticised poets, including Alexander Pushkin , for their "false" epithets used "simply to make it rhyme".
Tolstoy's contemporaries paid him lofty tributes. Fyodor Dostoyevsky thought him the greatest of all living novelists. Gustave Flaubert , on reading a translation of War and Peace , exclaimed, "What an artist and what a psychologist!
What he does serves to justify all the hopes and aspirations invested in literature. Later novelists continued to appreciate Tolstoy's art, but sometimes also expressed criticism.
Arthur Conan Doyle wrote "I am attracted by his earnestness and by his power of detail, but I am repelled by his looseness of construction and by his unreasonable and impracticable mysticism.
After reading Schopenhauer 's The World as Will and Representation , Tolstoy gradually became converted to the ascetic morality upheld in that work as the proper spiritual path for the upper classes: Constant raptures over Schopenhauer and a whole series of spiritual delights which I've never experienced before.
It explained how the nothingness that results from complete denial of self is only a relative nothingness, and is not to be feared. The novelist was struck by the description of Christian, Buddhist , and Hindu ascetic renunciation as being the path to holiness.
After reading passages such as the following, which abound in Schopenhauer's ethical chapters, the Russian nobleman chose poverty and formal denial of the will:.
But this very necessity of involuntary suffering by poor people for eternal salvation is also expressed by that utterance of the Savior Matthew Thus Buddha Sakyamuni was born a prince, but voluntarily took to the mendicant's staff; and Francis of Assisi , the founder of the mendicant orders who, as a youngster at a ball, where the daughters of all the notabilities were sitting together, was asked: In , Tolstoy wrote a book called What I Believe , in which he openly confessed his Christian beliefs.
He affirmed his belief in Jesus Christ 's teachings and was particularly influenced by the Sermon on the Mount , and the injunction to turn the other cheek , which he understood as a "commandment of non-resistance to evil by force" and a doctrine of pacifism and nonviolence.
In his work The Kingdom of God Is Within You , he explains that he considered mistaken the Church's doctrine because they had made a "perversion" of Christ's teachings.
Tolstoy believed being a Christian required him to be a pacifist; the consequences of being a pacifist, and the apparently inevitable waging of war by government, are the reason why he is considered a philosophical anarchist.
Later, various versions of "Tolstoy's Bible" would be published, indicating the passages Tolstoy most relied on, specifically, the reported words of Jesus himself.
Tolstoy believed that a true Christian could find lasting happiness by striving for inner self-perfection through following the Great Commandment of loving one's neighbor and God rather than looking outward to the Church or state for guidance.
His belief in nonresistance when faced by conflict is another distinct attribute of his philosophy based on Christ's teachings.
By directly influencing Mahatma Gandhi with this idea through his work The Kingdom of God Is Within You full text of English translation available on Wikisource , Tolstoy's profound influence on the nonviolent resistance movement reverberates to this day.
He believed that the aristocracy were a burden on the poor, and that the only solution to how we live together is through anarchism.
He also opposed private property in land ownership  and the institution of marriage and valued the ideals of chastity and sexual abstinence discussed in Father Sergius and his preface to The Kreutzer Sonata , ideals also held by the young Gandhi.
Tolstoy's later work derives a passion and verve from the depth of his austere moral views. Gorky relates how Tolstoy once read this passage before himself and Chekhov and that Tolstoy was moved to tears by the end of the reading.
Other later passages of rare power include the personal crises that were faced by the protagonists of The Death of Ivan Ilyich , and of Master and Man , where the main character in the former or the reader in the latter are made aware of the foolishness of the protagonists' lives.
Tolstoy had a profound influence on the development of Christian anarchist thought. Without naming himself an anarchist, Leo Tolstoy, like his predecessors in the popular religious movements of the 15th and 16th centuries, Chojecki , Denk and many others, took the anarchist position as regards the state and property rights , deducing his conclusions from the general spirit of the teachings of Jesus and from the necessary dictates of reason.
With all the might of his talent, Tolstoy made especially in The Kingdom of God Is Within You a powerful criticism of the church, the state and law altogether, and especially of the present property laws.
He describes the state as the domination of the wicked ones, supported by brutal force. Robbers, he says, are far less dangerous than a well-organized government.
He makes a searching criticism of the prejudices which are current now concerning the benefits conferred upon men by the church, the state, and the existing distribution of property, and from the teachings of Jesus he deduces the rule of non-resistance and the absolute condemnation of all wars.
His religious arguments are, however, so well combined with arguments borrowed from a dispassionate observation of the present evils, that the anarchist portions of his works appeal to the religious and the non-religious reader alike.
He was harshly critical of the atrocities committed by the Russians, Germans, Americans, Japanese, and other western troops. He accused them of engaging in slaughter when he heard about the lootings, rapes, and murders, in what he saw as Christian brutality.
The attack on China in the Boxer Rebellion was railed against by Tolstoy. To the Chinese people , an epistle, was written by Tolstoy as part of the criticism of the war by intellectuals in Russia.
Chinese Wisdom was a text written by Tolstoy. The Boxer Rebellion stirred Tolstoy's interest in Chinese philosophy. In hundreds of essays over the last 20 years of his life, Tolstoy reiterated the anarchist critique of the state and recommended books by Kropotkin and Proudhon to his readers, whilst rejecting anarchism's espousal of violent revolutionary means.
In the essay, "On Anarchy", he wrote; "The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions.
They are mistaken only in thinking that Anarchy can be instituted by a revolution. But it will be instituted only by there being more and more people who do not require the protection of governmental power There can be only one permanent revolution—a moral one: Tolstoy was enthused by the economic thinking of Henry George , incorporating it approvingly into later works such as Resurrection , the book that played a major factor in his excommunication.
In , Tolstoy wrote A Letter to a Hindu  outlining his belief in non-violence as a means for India to gain independence from British colonial rule.
In , a copy of the letter was read by Gandhi, who was working as a lawyer in South Africa at the time and just becoming an activist.
Tolstoy's letter was significant for Gandhi, who wrote Tolstoy seeking proof that he was the real author, leading to further correspondence between them.
Reading Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You also convinced Gandhi to avoid violence and espouse nonviolent resistance , a debt Gandhi acknowledged in his autobiography, calling Tolstoy "the greatest apostle of non-violence that the present age has produced".
The correspondence between Tolstoy and Gandhi would only last a year, from October until Tolstoy's death in November , but led Gandhi to give the name Tolstoy Colony to his second ashram in South Africa.
Tolstoy also became a major supporter of the Esperanto movement. Tolstoy was impressed by the pacifist beliefs of the Doukhobors and brought their persecution to the attention of the international community, after they burned their weapons in peaceful protest in He aided the Doukhobors in migrating to Canada.
Towards the end of his life, Tolstoy become more and more occupied with the economic theory and social philosophy of Georgism. And it is impossible to do otherwise with his teaching, for he who becomes acquainted with it cannot but agree.
Some assume that this development in Tolstoy's thinking was a move away from his anarchist views, since Georgism requires a central administration to collect land rent and spend it on infrastructure.
However, anarchist versions of Georgism have also been proposed since. It suggests the possibility of small communities with some form of local governance to manage the collective land rents for common goods; whilst still heavily criticising institutions of the state such as the justice system.
Tolstoy died in , at the age of Just prior to his death, his health had been a concern of his family, who were actively engaged in his care on a daily basis.
During his last few days, he had spoken and written about dying. Renouncing his aristocratic lifestyle, he had finally gathered the nerve to separate from his wife, and left home in the middle of winter, in the dead of night.
She was outspokenly opposed to many of his teachings, and in recent years had grown envious of the attention which it seemed to her Tolstoy lavished upon his Tolstoyan "disciples".
Tolstoy died of pneumonia  at Astapovo train station, after a day's rail journey south. He was given injections of morphine and camphor.
The police tried to limit access to his funeral procession, but thousands of peasants lined the streets. Still, some were heard to say that, other than knowing that "some nobleman had died", they knew little else about Tolstoy.
According to some sources, Tolstoy spent the last hours of his life preaching love, nonviolence, and Georgism to his fellow passengers on the train.
Both performers were nominated for Oscars for their roles. There is also a famous lost film of Tolstoy made a decade before he died.
Beveridge , the U. As the three men conversed, Holmes filmed Tolstoy with his mm movie camera. Afterwards, Beveridge's advisers succeeded in having the film destroyed, fearing that documentary evidence of a meeting with the Russian author might hurt Beveridge's chances of running for the U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tolstoy disambiguation. For the rural locality and the railway station in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, see Lev Tolstoy rural locality.
This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs ; the patronymic is Nikolayevich and the family name is Tolstoy.
Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana on 23 May , four months before his 80th birthday . The Power of Darkness. Anarchism Libertarianism Left-libertarianism Marxism Socialism.
Russia portal Biography portal Politics portal. Lectures on Russian literature. Retrieved 27 June Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
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